Review on activity of medicinal plant extracts against mosquito genera Anopheles & Culex
Sabila Afzal, Syed Shakil Shah, Samia Ghaffar, Sana Azam, Faiza Arif
Vector-borne diseases are spreading all across the world, which results in economic and social disturbances. Anopheles is a genera of mosquitoes that are responsible for the transmission of Malaria worldwide that causes millions of deaths every year. Culex is another genera of mosquitoes that transmits Japanese encephalitis, the annual death rate due to JE is 30,000-50,000. However different insecticides are used to control these vector borne diseases successfully such as: Carbamates, Organophosphates, Organochlorines, Pyrethroids Pyrroles and Phenyl pyrazole. Insecticides may be used as indoor sprays or as insecticides treated nets, all these are proved to be effective in eradication of mosquitoes, but these insecticides have some bad impacts as they harms environment, interact with non-targeted species, the major reason of the reduction in use of insecticides is the development of resistance in insects. Insects have altered their target site by alteration in special proteins due to which insecticides are not much harmful for insects. Alternative of these insecticides are plants based products used as larvicides, ovicides, adulticides or as repellents against mosquitoes. Different plant parts are extracted for their use as mosquito codes. Plant parts may be used directly through extraction, or essential oils may be extracted to repel mosquitoes. Essential oils are volatile and are effective as mosquito codes, they possess different fragrances that interact with the olfactory receptors of mosquitoes and repel them. Different plant essential oils are used for this purpose, as Neem oil extracted through seeds of Azadirachta indica used to repel 96-100% mosquitoes of Anopheles genus and 61-94% mosquitoes of Culex genus. Extracts of Garlic plant (Allium sativum) are used for killing of larva of Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Some other plants like Citrullus colocynthis, Ocimum basilicum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Dysoxylum malabaricum, Khaya senegalensis, Ficus benghalensis, Mentha piperita etc. are some plants used successfully for elimination of mosquitoes in a natural way.