Effect of organic products (Lupine oil and Areki) against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) on stored maize grains (Zea mays)
Melaku Wale, Tesfaye Mengie
Humans and animals share the same environmental resources for food. Storage insect pests destroy food grains in storage. Environmentally sound pest management methods rely on cultural, physical, biological and botanical pesticides. In the present study the insecticidal activity of Lupinus albus (juice and powder) and Areki (locally brewed alcoholic drink) was examined against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The Experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD), with three replications. Different levels (doses) of Lupine powder, Lupine juice, and areki (local areki) were used. Weevil mortality, number of holes on a random sample of maize seeds, grain weight loss and rate of germination were recorded for each treatment. According to the ANOVA, treated and untreated treatments significantly varied in weevil mortality (F71, 144= 116.15, P<0.0001), in number of holes (F11, 24= 631.1, P<0.0001), in grain weight loss (F11, 24= 1499.2, p<0.0001), in maize seed germination rate after treatment (F11, 24= 93.53, P<0.0001) and in number of offspring (F71, 144 = 93.116.15, P<0.0001). Except the untreated check, 100% weevil mortality was achieved in just one day by all doses of Areki, in three days by lupine juice and in one week by lupine powder. In all treatments, weevil mortality increased with increasing dose and with time. Except the untreated check, all treatments and their doses completely prevented weevil reproduction, holes and weight loss suggesting the power of these products against weevils. Higher level of Lupine juice affected germination of maize grain whereas local areki and Lupine powder did not have effect on seed germination. In conclusion, Lupine products and Areki are ready for use for stored grain protection.