Studies on the female genital musculature of Acrida exaltata (Walk.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
Robina Naseer, Mohammad Amir
The female genital musculature of grasshopper Acrida exaltata (Walk.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) is described with its origin and insertion. The female genital musculature consists of mainly twenty four muscles with different origin and insertion in eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh abdominal segments. These muscles includes median internal dorsal muscle (242), lateral internal dorsal muscle (243), median external dorsal muscle (245), median internal ventral muscle (247), lateral ventral muscle (248), internal lateral muscle (250), first external lateral muscle (251), second external lateral muscle (252), short protractor of ovipositor (256), internal dorsal muscle (260), long protractor of ovipositor (262), retractor of ovipositor (263), levator of dorsal or third valvula (271), depressor of ventral or first valvula (272), adductor of ventral or first valvula (273), adductor of dorsal or third valvula (274), muscle of intermediate or second valvula (275), depressor of cercus (287), median levator of cercus (288), lateral levator of cercus (289), ventral muscle of paraproct (291), transverse muscle (292), adductor of cercus (293) and adductor of paraproct (294).