Challenges due to bacterial infections of the honey bees and contributions to manage pest problems
This publication contains information concerning bacterial infections American foulbrood (irregular capped and uncapped comb cells, larvae change from pearly white to dark brown), European foulbrood (discolored capping, larvae change from glistening white to faint yellow), Septicaemia (mildly shriveled abdomen, hemolymph milky-white), Parathypus (swollen abdomen, liquid intestinal contents), Powdery Scale (scales result from dead larvae) and Spiroplasmosis (pathogens reach hemolymph and kill bee) rapidly deteriorating to honeybees. Recognizing disease symptoms in honeybee colonies is an essential part of good beekeeping management. Peoples unexperienced in handling bee’s equipment and collecting samples should first read the agricultural message on safe beekeeping practices. Early detection allows for prompt remedial action and helps in preventing serious disease outbreak and economic losses. Thorough inspections of brood should be conducted in early spring, during the main honey producing season and in autumn when hives are prepared for winter. Look for any unusual cell caps and brood, especially larvae that are off-color or abnormally positioned in the cell. Make routine inspections for treatment of colonies with lower levels of infection by shaking adult bees onto clean comb, destroying the infected brood, feeding the colony with antibiotic oxytetracycline and by destruction of heavily infected colonies to enforce break in infections cycle.