Effect of temperature on the life cycle and pupal color of lime swallotail butterfly, Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
ATMF Islam, Md. Shahinur Islam, M. Yasmin, Akira Yamanakax
Papilio. demoleus (L) is considered among the major insect pest of citrus cultivated areas in Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated the effect of winter months temperature (18.550C to 25.370C) and warmer months temperature (27.670 to 30.530 C) on development cycle and pupal coloration of P. demoleus. Results showed that development of the P. demoleus was slow at lower temperature and at the high temperature, developmental rate was fast. Towards the end of the November when temperature was 24.120C, P. demoleus pupae entered into diapause and spent following months; December, January and middle of February in dormancy/diapause. Adults emerged at the end of February when temperature range was 25.50C to 270C with average 26.440C, for this reason winter months pupal period was about six times longer than pupal period of warm months. We found that temperature had a significant effect on P. demoleus pupal coloration. Larvae maintained in winter environment had more brown pupae (76.19%) and less green pupae (9.53%), whereas more green pupae (65.38%) and less brown pupae (11.54%) were found when larvae maintained in warmer environment.