Vol. 4, Issue 4 (2019)
Efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extract against pepper whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Author(s): Yap Chin Ann
Abstract: Three extracted fractions from black pepper berries, Piper nigrum in three concentrations were examine for their insecticidal bioactivity against pepper whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. Obtained results showed that pepper whiteflies adults and nymphs were the most susceptible to methanol extract. The survival rate reduced to 17.1% and 50% for whitefly adult and nymphs respectively at 10% (w/w) after 72 hours of treatment as compared to control treatment. Extracts of leaves and stems was found to be not effective against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively. GC/MS analysis reveals the present of various type of piperamide compounds and secondary metabolites in pepper berries extract that were responsible for insecticide activity through neurotoxic effect. The main components of piperamides were piperine, piperidine, pyrrolidine and pyridine which contribute to 12.91% of all secondary compounds in berries. Other active compounds that may cause mortality of whitefly include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids and alkaloids, and some other constituents include α-pinene, linalool, copaene, and aniline. Thus, the bioactive extracts of black pepper berries extract have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in pepper cultivation activity.