Vol. 4, Issue 2 (2019)
Chemical composition and Insecticidal Activity of Piper umbellatum leaf. essential oil on the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae S.L and Culex quinquefasciatus
Author(s): Henri Abé, Gisèle Aurelie Foko Dadji, Joseph Lebel Tamesse
Abstract: The prevention of Arthropod borne diseases is based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Because of the development of vector resistance to the advocated insecticides, plant essential oils could be an eco-friendly alternative against vector resistance. The study present dealt with the chemical composition and insecticidal property of Piper umbellatum leaf essential oil on Anopheles gambiae S.L and Culex quinquefasciatus. Piper umbellatum leaf essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation with a Clevenger type apparatus and analysed by GC-MS. Bioassays were performed on third instar larvae and 2-5 days old non-blood fed female adults of the laboratory and field strain of Anopheles gambiae S.L and Culex quinquefasciatus. Chemical analysis of Piper umbellatum leaf essential oil revealed the presence of terpenes compounds reported effective on insects and various pest. For larvicidal tests, the lethal concentrations killing 50% and 95% of the larvae were 0.51%; 0.61%; 0.09% and 0.91%; 1.09%; 0.23% for 24 h exposure respectively for Anopheles gambiae S.L and Culex quinquefasciatus. These concentrations were 0.43%; 0.58%; 0.05% and 0.79%; 1.05% and 0.16% for 48h exposure respectively. Knockdown time for 50% and 95% of knocked down mosquitoes were: 05+0.4min; 09+0.2min; 19+0.57min and 40+0.32min; 47+0.54min; 51+0.49min respectively. Concentrations killing 50% and 95% of adult females were: 0.40%; 0.43%; 0.24% and 0.73%; 0.76%; 0.52% respectively. Piper umbellatum leaf essential oil was effective against the third instar larvae and adult females of Anopheles gambiae S.L and Culex quinquefasciatus.