Vol. 4, Issue 1 (2019)
Biochemical analysis of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) under natural and artificial envenomation of ecto-parasitoid Bracon hebetor (say.) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)
Author(s): Muhammad Shehzad, Asad Aslam, Zain-ul-Abdin, Muhammad Jafir, Muhammad Kamil Malik, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Wajid Javed, Muhammad Zubair Chaudhary
Abstract: Parasitoids can overpower the phenoloxidase (PO) releasing system through several methods such as inhibition of protease activity or by blocking of pattern-recognizing proteins as well as destruction of immunocompetent cells. The depression of PO activity can be the result of the impact of venom components injected by the female of the parasitoid into the haemocoel of the host insect. The wounding and penetration by parasitic wasp lead to the activation of defense reactions in parasitized host insects. An effective innate immune response against parasites in insects is the encapsulation of the invader followed by melanization. The phenoloxidase (PO) cascade takes part in the process of melanization, is an inactive proenzyme proPhenoloxidase (proPO), present in the cuticle and haemolymph of insects. To understand the impact of venom of the ectoparasitic wasp Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on the immunity of host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) under natural and artificial envenomation we tested the activity of PO in haemolymph and number of haemocytes with PO activity in haemolymph of the parasitized host larvae. The obtained information was helpful in understanding the insect immune response in host parasitoid relationship, which will ultimately facilitate the development of sustainable plant protection strategies for the control pest insects of Pyralidae and data was analysed statistically.