Review on effect of carbamate pesticide on male reproductive system of mammals
Sabila Afzal, Syed Shakil Shah, Muhammad Fozan iqbal, Ammara Noureen
Pesticides are combination of chemicals used to avoid pest infestation and they act as biocides that kill all life forms. Most popular pesticides include carbamates, pyrethroids, organochlorine and organophosphate. The rate of damage that pesticides impose in reproduction organs and tissues entirely depends upon dosage of pesticide and their contact procedure. Direct or indirect exposure of humans to pesticides leads to severe health problems such as cancer and abnormalities of endocrine, neurological, and reproductive systems i.e., Testicular function. Carbamate is one of relevant chemical among EDCs (Endocrine Distruping Chemicals) including carbaryl, propamocarb, pimicarb, methiocarb, benomyl, bendiocarb, aminocarb, carbofuran, carbosulfan, methomyl, thiodicarb and aminocarb adversely affect male reproductive system by effecting normal functioning of spermatogenesis and subsequent changes in reproductive ducts. Carbamate affect the normal functioning of reproduction system by destroying the endocrine system either increasing or decreasing the level of hormones such as testosterone, LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol. Carbamate pesticides are main cause of infertility and can be controlled by awareness schemes and by promoting preventive measures.