Life aspects and mode of damage of brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) on eggplant (Solanum melongena Linnaeus): A review
Muhammad Abdullah Shaukat, Ahmad Manan Mustafa, Ammad Ahmad, Sohail Maqsood, Umer Hayat, Farwa Mustafa, Gulraiz Malik
Brinjal (Eggplant) Solanum melongena Linnaeus is the most important vegetable of hot and wet climatic zones. It is commercially very accessible and profitable vegetable to farmers. A wide range of essential biochemicals and minerals belongs to brinjal including vitamins, proteins, calcium, phosphorus. Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee is the major infectious insect causing a high toll to plants. BSFB generally depends on brinjal but sometimes turns towards other solanaceous field crops and may be on wild hosts. The pest is spreader to wide areas of eggplant cultivation with South of Sahara, Africa and Asia including China and Philippines. Egg-laying occurs during night and incubation period ranges from 3-8 days depending of environmental conditions. Larval period completes in 12-22 days depending upon environmental situations and passes through five instars. Full grown larvae pupate into the soil or under plant debris and dropped dead shoots. Adult of BSFB is a whitish moth which hide during day time and activates from dusk to perform various activities like mating oviposition. It was investigated that environmental factors have a great impact on the life of L. orbonalis. Damage of the pest belongs to all parts of the plants like inflorescence, fruits and shoots. Larvae bore into fruits and shoots and in younger plants, caterpillars drill into midrib of large leaves. At the time of maturity, damage of the insect on fruits cause a serious loss in yield.